Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year 10 million people contract tuberculosis and 1.5 Mio. die. The standard therapy consists of a combination of several antibiotics over a long period (0.5 to 2 years) and is often accompanied by heavy side effects. Frustratingly, many bacteria have become resistant to one or more of those antibiotics such that patients can often not be treated successfully anymore. To improve this situation, new antibiotics against resistant bugs are desperately needed. Benzothiazinones are a new type of such antibiotics, which have first been discovered at the Hans Knöll Institute. But it is a long way to go from the laboratory to patient. Many different substances need to be prepared, optimized and tested in order to find the right properties required for human use. Even after the best substance has been selected, it has to undergo years of extensive testing until it can be purchased from the pharmacy.